In men, lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death and in women, it is the second most usual cancer after breast cancer. For lung cancer therapy, currently, there are available several non-specific cytotoxic agents and several targeted agents. However, several efforts are being made for early-stage diagnosis as it is still unavailable. With new biopsy techniques, novel biomarkers are being investigated. An everyday phenomenon is an occupational and environmental exposure to carcinogenic agents. Therefore, avoidance of exposure to carcinogenic agents is necessary until an efficient early diagnosis is available. Here we will present a small review of occupational and environmental carcinogenic agents. You can consult an oncologist if you want to know more about this matter.

A detailed analysis

Genetic and environmental causative factors play an interrelated role in carcinogenesis, which is a complex, multifactorial process. This leads to uncontrolled cell growth. Smoking of cigarettes causes lung cancer in the majority of cases. In countries where the prevalence of cigarette smoking is high, it is the main causative agent for about 80% to 90% of cases. The world map of lung cancer will be altered by changes in smoking habits in populous, developing countries.

However, it is estimated that among non-smokers from different parts of the world about 10-20% of lung cancer cases are detected by cancer specialists. We cannot blame cigarette smoking only for approximately 300000 deaths every year due to lung cancer. We will find that well above cervix, pancreas or prostate cancer, lung cancer is the seventh most common cause of cancer death if we categorize lung cancer among never smokers as a separate group. Exposure to radiation, exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution, occupational exposure to agents like asbestos and hard metals and exposure to environmental cigarette smoke (passive smoking) are some of the many etiologic factors of lung cancer other than cigarette smoking. The most common forms of occupational cancers are lung cancer, leukemia and mesothelioma. Among occupationally related cancers, lung cancer is considered to be the most common.

Treatment options

A number of factors are considered when you and your doctor choose a cancer treatment plan. Your overall health, the type and stage of your cancer and your preferences are some of these factors. Your surgeon works to remove the lung cancer and a small portion of healthy tissue during surgery. Wedge resection, segmental resection, lobectomy and pneumonectomy are the procedures to remove lung cancer. Sometimes, to kill cancer cells, radiation therapy uses high-powered energy beams from sources such as X-rays and protons. Cancer cells are killed using drugs in chemotherapy. Some other treatment options are radiosurgery, targeted drug therapy and immunotherapy.