Oncologists associate three AIDS-defining malignancies with HIV infection. They are Kaposi’s sarcoma, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and invasive cervical cancer.
The chance of developing Kaposi sarcoma, a type of blood vessel cancer, is much more in the people living with HIV than in those who are not. A virus called human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) has a connection with this cancer. Through sexual contact and saliva, this virus spreads. There are normally no symptoms in the early stage. The skin may become dark or mouth lesions may develop in some people. Weight loss and fever are some other symptoms. There may be adverse effects on the lymph nodes, digestive tract and major organs due to Kaposi sarcoma. If you undergo proper treatment by a cancer doctor in Kolkata, it can be cured. It can mean that your HIV has grown into Stage 3 HIV if you develop Kaposi sarcoma. However, the risk for Kaposi sarcoma can decrease and life expectancy can increase if you take proper medication. With a strong immune system, Kaposi sarcoma tends to shrink. Kaposi sarcoma associated with HIV is also not a cause of death by itself.
It indicates the transition to stage 3 HIV if there is Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). If you undergo antiretroviral therapy, the risk of developing Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma can decrease. The second most common cancer associated with stage 3 HIV is Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The risk of developing this cancer is more in people living with HIV. Confusion, facial paralysis, fatigue and seizures are some symptoms of Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Chemotherapy can be used for treatment. However, a number of factors like blood cell count, stage of the disease and immune system function play a major role in deciding the mode of treatment. X-rays, CT scans, MRIs, PET scans and biopsy are some tests used to diagnose Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. An oncologist in Kolkata uses chemotherapy, radiation therapy, stem cell transplant or medications in its treatment depending on your age, the type of NHL and the stage of NHL.
Invasive cervical cancer
In comparison to other women, those who are living with HIV have 3 times more chance of developing cervical cancer. There is a strong link of the human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted disease, with cervical cancer. Some women, who have uncompromised immune systems, have a better outlook. However, treatment is available for this, which also depends on the stage of cancer and a woman’s CD4 count. There is a higher risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in women living with HIV. In this condition, there is a growth of precancerous cells in the cervix. CIN, which normally have no symptoms, can lead to cervical cancer. In women with HIV, CIN is harder to treat, but an oncologist will provide the best treatment possible.