The uncontrolled growth of the cells and forms from the extra mass tissue called the tumor is the cause of the deadly disease cancer.  When the cells lose their apoptotic nature in their metabolic pathway, it leads to cancer. There are various causes such as tobacco intake, cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, poor diet and exposure to UV rays behind the development of cancer. A number of organs in our body such as the lungs, kidney, heart, brain, etc. can be affected by cancer cells. Blood cancer develops when the cancer cells spread in the bloodstream. Aluminium, arsenic, radon, lead and lead compounds are among the most cancer-causing agents. In different stages, cancer is treated by surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy and bone marrow transplantation.

Major Types of cancer

According to a cancer specialist, the following are the three major types of cancer:

  • Carcinomas
  • Lymphomas
  • Sarcomas

Carcinomas

In the whole world, approximately 85% of carcinoma cases were diagnosed. In the epithelial cell, carcinomas develop and they have four subtypes.

 

  • Aadenocarcinomas such as Lung Cancer
  • Squamous cell carcinomas such as Oral Cancer
  • Transitional cell carcinoma such as Bladder Cancer
  • Basal cell carcinomas such as Skin Cancer

 

Lung Cancer

There are two types of lung cancer known as non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. In comparison to small cell lung cancer, non-small lung cancer is more common.

Causes:

Lung cancer is rarely seen in people below 40 years and is mostly seen in older people. The main reason behind lung cancer is cigarette smoking. An oncologist will warn you about this. The other causes include tobacco and alcohol intake, air pollution, high levels of arsenic intake, radon gas, etc.

Symptoms: Some symptoms like chest pain, difficulty in breathing, joint pains, sudden weight loss, etc.

Oral Cancer

Oral cancer affects cheek lining, the root of the mouth, gums, and floor of the mouth. A serious problem of cancer is head and neck cancer that falls under squamous cell carcinoma.

Causes: Oral cancer causes due to smoking, tobacco usage, alcohol intake, poor oral hygiene, etc.

Symptoms:

Patients suffering from oral cancer have difficulty in chewing, mouth sores, tongue problems, difficulty while speaking. You should consult a cancer doctor when you see any of these symptoms.

Bladder Cancer

The bladder area in the center part of the lower belly is the place where bladder cancer develops.

Causes: Bladder cancer develops due to cigarette smoking, exposure to chemicals like arsenic, etc.

Symptoms: In bladder cancer, symptoms like abdominal pain, blood in urine, fatigue, urine leakage, weight loss, etc.

Skin Cancer

A most common type of cancer is skin cancer. The two groups of cancer are melanoma and non-melanoma. In comparison to melanoma, non-melanoma is less dangerous and more common. It can be fully cured if treated by an oncologist in Kolkata.

Causes:

Exposure to ultraviolet light, exposure to high level of X-rays, exposure with some chemicals and immunosuppression-impairment are some causes of skin cancer.

Symptoms:

The skin becomes red, scaling and new pain and itching start when it is exposed to the sun. Bumps appear on the skin of the head, neck and shoulder in basal cell carcinoma. There is also the development of new moles of different shape, size, and colour. There is itching, ulceration or bleeding. Another symptom of cancer is tanning.

Lymphomas

You will find 7% of lymphomas cancer worldwide. The lymph cell in the immune system gets affected by this cancer. The lymph nodes enlarge and form lumps in the people having lymphomas cancer.

Sarcomas

Sarcomas fall under the type of cancer that is found in the mesoderm tissue. Sarcomas consist of a bone tumour, fat, muscle and tumour of hematotopoietic tissue. Soft tissue sarcomas are an example of soft tissue sarcomas.

Soft tissue sarcomas

In the connective tissue, soft tissue sarcomas mainly form. In a year worldwide, less than 1% of cases are seen. Malignant Fibrous Histiocytoma is one of the most common soft tissue sarcomas in adults and should be treated by a cancer specialist.

Causes:

There is a high risk of soft tissue cancer in the patients who are treated with radiation therapy of cancer. There is the risk of soft tissue sarcomas cancer in the people working at chemical workplaces where herbicides, arsenic, vinyl chloride and phenoxyacetic acid are found.

Symptoms:

In the body, the formation of lumps is found in any place. Sometimes bleeding occurs from the area of a tumour, pain is felt in nerves and muscles and there is a blockage in the intestine.

Treatments

There are various modes of treatment for all types of cancer. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are different cancer treatment options. Another potential therapy for cancer treatment is the use of immunotoxins like monoclonal antibodies of bacterial or plant protein toxins.

Surgery: For the treatment of cancer, surgery is the usual option. The different methods of surgery used in curing cancer are a biopsy, endoscopy, ultrasonography and open surgical exploration.

Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the process of anticancer drugs used to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy can be used without using radiation therapy after or before surgery by the best surgical oncologist.

Radiation Therapy: Cancer cell is also killed by radiation therapy. Cancer treatment can be successfully done by using x-rays, gamma rays and charged particles.